Mahyar Khayatkhoei, Maneesh K. Singh, Ahmed Elgammal
Natural images may lie on a union of disjoint manifolds rather than one globally connected manifold, and this can cause several difficulties for the training of common Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs). In this work, we first show that single generator GANs are unable to correctly model a distribution supported on a disconnected manifold, and investigate how sample quality, mode dropping and local convergence are affected by this. Next, we show how using a collection of generators can address this problem, providing new insights into the success of such multi-generator GANs. Finally, we explain the serious issues caused by considering a fixed prior over the collection of generators and propose a novel approach for learning the prior and inferring the necessary number of generators without any supervision. Our proposed modifications can be applied on top of any other GAN model to enable learning of distributions supported on disconnected manifolds. We conduct several experiments to illustrate the aforementioned shortcoming of GANs, its consequences in practice, and the effectiveness of our proposed modifications in alleviating these issues.