Part of Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 30 (NIPS 2017)

*Xingguo Li, Jarvis Haupt, David Woodruff*

We study the least squares regression problem $\min_{\Theta \in \RR^{p_1 \times \cdots \times p_D}} \| \cA(\Theta) - b \|_2^2$, where $\Theta$ is a low-rank tensor, defined as $\Theta = \sum_{r=1}^{R} \theta_1^{(r)} \circ \cdots \circ \theta_D^{(r)}$, for vectors $\theta_d^{(r)} \in \mathbb{R}^{p_d}$ for all $r \in [R]$ and $d \in [D]$. %$R$ is small compared with $p_1,\ldots,p_D$, Here, $\circ$ denotes the outer product of vectors, and $\cA(\Theta)$ is a linear function on $\Theta$. This problem is motivated by the fact that the number of parameters in $\Theta$ is only $R \cdot \sum_{d=1}^D p_D$, which is significantly smaller than the $\prod_{d=1}^{D} p_d$ number of parameters in ordinary least squares regression. We consider the above CP decomposition model of tensors $\Theta$, as well as the Tucker decomposition. For both models we show how to apply data dimensionality reduction techniques based on {\it sparse} random projections $\Phi \in \RR^{m \times n}$, with $m \ll n$, to reduce the problem to a much smaller problem $\min_{\Theta} \|\Phi \cA(\Theta) - \Phi b\|_2^2$, for which $\|\Phi \cA(\Theta) - \Phi b\|_2^2 = (1 \pm \varepsilon) \| \cA(\Theta) - b \|_2^2$ holds simultaneously for all $\Theta$. We obtain a significantly smaller dimension and sparsity in the randomized linear mapping $\Phi$ than is possible for ordinary least squares regression. Finally, we give a number of numerical simulations supporting our theory.

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