Solving Most Systems of Random Quadratic Equations

Part of Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 30 (NIPS 2017)

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Gang Wang, Georgios Giannakis, Yousef Saad, Jie Chen


This paper deals with finding an $n$-dimensional solution $\bm{x}$ to a system of quadratic equations $y_i=|\langle\bm{a}_i,\bm{x}\rangle|^2$, $1\le i \le m$, which in general is known to be NP-hard. We put forth a novel procedure, that starts with a \emph{weighted maximal correlation initialization} obtainable with a few power iterations, followed by successive refinements based on \emph{iteratively reweighted gradient-type iterations}. The novel techniques distinguish themselves from prior works by the inclusion of a fresh (re)weighting regularization. For certain random measurement models, the proposed procedure returns the true solution $\bm{x}$ with high probability in time proportional to reading the data $\{(\bm{a}_i;y_i)\}_{1\le i \le m}$, provided that the number $m$ of equations is some constant $c>0$ times the number $n$ of unknowns, that is, $m\ge cn$. Empirically, the upshots of this contribution are: i) perfect signal recovery in the high-dimensional regime given only an \emph{information-theoretic limit number} of equations; and, ii) (near-)optimal statistical accuracy in the presence of additive noise. Extensive numerical tests using both synthetic data and real images corroborate its improved signal recovery performance and computational efficiency relative to state-of-the-art approaches.