Deep Representations and Codes for Image Auto-Annotation

Part of Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 25 (NIPS 2012)

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Ryan Kiros, Csaba Szepesvári


The task of assigning a set of relevant tags to an image is challenging due to the size and variability of tag vocabularies. Consequently, most existing algorithms focus on tag assignment and fix an often large number of hand-crafted features to describe image characteristics. In this paper we introduce a hierarchical model for learning representations of full sized color images from the pixel level, removing the need for engineered feature representations and subsequent feature selection. We benchmark our model on the STL-10 recognition dataset, achieving state-of-the-art performance. When our features are combined with TagProp (Guillaumin et al.), we outperform or compete with existing annotation approaches that use over a dozen distinct image descriptors. Furthermore, using 256-bit codes and Hamming distance for training TagProp, we exchange only a small reduction in performance for efficient storage and fast comparisons. In our experiments, using deeper architectures always outperform shallow ones.