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HaiYing Wang, Aonan Zhang, Chong Wang
We investigate the issue of parameter estimation with nonuniform negative sampling for imbalanced data. We first prove that, with imbalanced data, the available information about unknown parameters is only tied to the relatively small number of positive instances, which justifies the usage of negative sampling. However, if the negative instances are subsampled to the same level of the positive cases, there is information loss. To maintain more information, we derive the asymptotic distribution of a general inverse probability weighted (IPW) estimator and obtain the optimal sampling probability that minimizes its variance. To further improve the estimation efficiency over the IPW method, we propose a likelihood-based estimator by correcting log odds for the sampled data and prove that the improved estimator has the smallest asymptotic variance among a large class of estimators. It is also more robust to pilot misspecification. We validate our approach on simulated data as well as a real click-through rate dataset with more than 0.3 trillion instances, collected over a period of a month. Both theoretical and empirical results demonstrate the effectiveness of our method.