LoCoOp: Few-Shot Out-of-Distribution Detection via Prompt Learning

Part of Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 36 (NeurIPS 2023) Main Conference Track

Bibtex Paper Supplemental


Atsuyuki Miyai, Qing Yu, Go Irie, Kiyoharu Aizawa


We present a novel vision-language prompt learning approach for few-shot out-of-distribution (OOD) detection. Few-shot OOD detection aims to detect OOD images from classes that are unseen during training using only a few labeled in-distribution (ID) images. While prompt learning methods such as CoOp have shown effectiveness and efficiency in few-shot ID classification, they still face limitations in OOD detection due to the potential presence of ID-irrelevant information in text embeddings. To address this issue, we introduce a new approach called $\textbf{Lo}$cal regularized $\textbf{Co}$ntext $\textbf{Op}$timization (LoCoOp), which performs OOD regularization that utilizes the portions of CLIP local features as OOD features during training. CLIP's local features have a lot of ID-irrelevant nuisances ($\textit{e.g.}$, backgrounds), and by learning to push them away from the ID class text embeddings, we can remove the nuisances in the ID class text embeddings and enhance the separation between ID and OOD. Experiments on the large-scale ImageNet OOD detection benchmarks demonstrate the superiority of our LoCoOp over zero-shot, fully supervised detection methods and prompt learning methods. Notably, even in a one-shot setting -- just one label per class, LoCoOp outperforms existing zero-shot and fully supervised detection methods. The code is available via https://github.com/AtsuMiyai/LoCoOp.