Geodesic Multi-Modal Mixup for Robust Fine-Tuning

Part of Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 36 (NeurIPS 2023) Main Conference Track

Bibtex Paper Supplemental


Changdae Oh, Junhyuk So, Hoyoon Byun, YongTaek Lim, Minchul Shin, Jong-June Jeon, Kyungwoo Song


Pre-trained multi-modal models, such as CLIP, provide transferable embeddings and show promising results in diverse applications. However, the analysis of learned multi-modal embeddings is relatively unexplored, and the embedding transferability can be improved. In this work, we observe that CLIP holds separated embedding subspaces for two different modalities, and then we investigate it through the lens of \textit{uniformity-alignment} to measure the quality of learned representation. Both theoretically and empirically, we show that CLIP retains poor uniformity and alignment even after fine-tuning. Such a lack of alignment and uniformity might restrict the transferability and robustness of embeddings. To this end, we devise a new fine-tuning method for robust representation equipping better alignment and uniformity. First, we propose a \textit{Geodesic Multi-Modal Mixup} that mixes the embeddings of image and text to generate hard negative samples on the hypersphere. Then, we fine-tune the model on hard negatives as well as original negatives and positives with contrastive loss. Based on the theoretical analysis about hardness guarantee and limiting behavior, we justify the use of our method. Extensive experiments on retrieval, calibration, few- or zero-shot classification (under distribution shift), embedding arithmetic, and image captioning further show that our method provides transferable representations, enabling robust model adaptation on diverse tasks.