Graph Contrastive Learning with Stable and Scalable Spectral Encoding

Part of Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 36 (NeurIPS 2023) Main Conference Track

Bibtex Paper Supplemental


Deyu Bo, Yuan Fang, Yang Liu, Chuan Shi


Graph contrastive learning (GCL) aims to learn representations by capturing the agreements between different graph views. Traditional GCL methods generate views in the spatial domain, but it has been recently discovered that the spectral domain also plays a vital role in complementing spatial views. However, existing spectral-based graph views either ignore the eigenvectors that encode valuable positional information or suffer from high complexity when trying to address the instability of spectral features. To tackle these challenges, we first design an informative, stable, and scalable spectral encoder, termed EigenMLP, to learn effective representations from the spectral features. Theoretically, EigenMLP is invariant to the rotation and reflection transformations on eigenvectors and robust against perturbations. Then, we propose a spatial-spectral contrastive framework (Sp$^{2}$GCL) to capture the consistency between the spatial information encoded by graph neural networks and the spectral information learned by EigenMLP, thus effectively fusing these two graph views. Experiments on the node- and graph-level datasets show that our method not only learns effective graph representations but also achieves a 2--10x speedup over other spectral-based methods.