Learning Curves for Deep Structured Gaussian Feature Models

Part of Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 36 (NeurIPS 2023) Main Conference Track

Bibtex Paper Supplemental


Jacob Zavatone-Veth, Cengiz Pehlevan


In recent years, significant attention in deep learning theory has been devoted to analyzing when models that interpolate their training data can still generalize well to unseen examples. Many insights have been gained from studying models with multiple layers of Gaussian random features, for which one can compute precise generalization asymptotics. However, few works have considered the effect of weight anisotropy; most assume that the random features are generated using independent and identically distributed Gaussian weights, and allow only for structure in the input data. Here, we use the replica trick from statistical physics to derive learning curves for models with many layers of structured Gaussian features. We show that allowing correlations between the rows of the first layer of features can aid generalization, while structure in later layers is generally detrimental. Our results shed light on how weight structure affects generalization in a simple class of solvable models.