MARBLE: Music Audio Representation Benchmark for Universal Evaluation

Part of Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 36 (NeurIPS 2023) Datasets and Benchmarks Track

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Ruibin Yuan, Yinghao Ma, Yizhi Li, Ge Zhang, Xingran Chen, Hanzhi Yin, zhuo le, Yiqi Liu, Jiawen Huang, Zeyue Tian, Binyue Deng, Ningzhi Wang, Chenghua Lin, Emmanouil Benetos, Anton Ragni, Norbert Gyenge, Roger Dannenberg, Wenhu Chen, Gus Xia, Wei Xue, Si Liu, Shi Wang, Ruibo Liu, Yike Guo, Jie Fu


In the era of extensive intersection between art and Artificial Intelligence (AI), such as image generation and fiction co-creation, AI for music remains relatively nascent, particularly in music understanding. This is evident in the limited work on deep music representations, the scarcity of large-scale datasets, and the absence of a universal and community-driven benchmark. To address this issue, we introduce the Music Audio Representation Benchmark for universaL Evaluation, termed MARBLE. It aims to provide a benchmark for various Music Information Retrieval (MIR) tasks by defining a comprehensive taxonomy with four hierarchy levels, including acoustic, performance, score, and high-level description. We then establish a unified protocol based on 18 tasks on 12 public-available datasets, providing a fair and standard assessment of representations of all open-sourced pre-trained models developed on music recordings as baselines. Besides, MARBLE offers an easy-to-use, extendable, and reproducible suite for the community, with a clear statement on copyright issues on datasets. Results suggest recently proposed large-scale pre-trained musical language models perform the best in most tasks, with room for further improvement. The leaderboard and toolkit repository are published to promote future music AI research.