Foundation Model is Efficient Multimodal Multitask Model Selector

Part of Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 36 (NeurIPS 2023) Main Conference Track

Bibtex Paper Supplemental


Fanqing Meng, Wenqi Shao, zhanglin peng, Chonghe Jiang, Kaipeng Zhang, Yu Qiao, Ping Luo


This paper investigates an under-explored but important problem: given a collection of pre-trained neural networks, predicting their performance on each multi-modal task without fine-tuning them, such as image recognition, referring, captioning, visual question answering, and text question answering.A brute-force approach is to finetune all models on all target datasets, bringing high computational costs. Although recent-advanced approaches employed lightweight metrics to measure models’ transferability, they often depend heavily on the prior knowledge of a single task, making them inapplicable in a multi-modal multi-task scenario. To tackle this issue, we propose an efficient multi-task model selector (EMMS), which employs large-scale foundation models to transform diverse label formats such as categories, texts, and bounding boxes of different downstream tasks into a unified noisy label embedding. EMMS can estimate a model’s transferability through a simple weighted linear regression, which can be efficiently solved by an alternating minimization algorithm with a convergence guarantee. Extensive experiments on 5 downstream tasks with 24 datasets show that EMMS is fast, effective, and generic enough to assess the transferability of pre-trained models, making it the first model selection method in the multi-task scenario. For instance, compared with the state- of-the-art method LogME enhanced by our label embeddings, EMMS achieves 9.0%, 26.3%, 20.1%, 54.8%, 12.2% performance gain on image recognition, referring, captioning, visual question answering, and text question answering, while bringing 5.13×, 6.29×, 3.59×, 6.19×, and 5.66× speedup in wall-clock time, respectively. The code is available at