FACE: Evaluating Natural Language Generation with Fourier Analysis of Cross-Entropy

Part of Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 36 (NeurIPS 2023) Main Conference Track

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Zuhao Yang, Yingfang Yuan, Yang Xu, SHUO ZHAN, Huajun Bai, Kefan Chen


Measuring the distance between machine-produced and human language is a critical open problem. Inspired by empirical findings from psycholinguistics on the periodicity of entropy in language, we propose FACE, a set of metrics based on Fourier Analysis of the estimated Cross-Entropy of language, for measuring the similarity between model-generated and human-written languages. Based on an open-ended generation task and the experimental data from previous studies, we find that FACE can effectively identify the human-model gap, scales with model size, reflects the outcomes of different sampling methods for decoding, correlates well with other evaluation metrics and with human judgment scores.