Part of Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 35 (NeurIPS 2022) Main Conference Track
Peizhong Ju, Xiaojun Lin, Ness Shroff
In this paper, we study the generalization performance of overparameterized 3-layer NTK models. We show that, for a specific set of ground-truth functions (which we refer to as the "learnable set"), the test error of the overfitted 3-layer NTK is upper bounded by an expression that decreases with the number of neurons of the two hidden layers. Different from 2-layer NTK where there exists only one hidden-layer, the 3-layer NTK involves interactions between two hidden-layers. Our upper bound reveals that, between the two hidden-layers, the test error descends faster with respect to the number of neurons in the second hidden-layer (the one closer to the output) than with respect to that in the first hidden-layer (the one closer to the input). We also show that the learnable set of 3-layer NTK without bias is no smaller than that of 2-layer NTK models with various choices of bias in the neurons. However, in terms of the actual generalization performance, our results suggest that 3-layer NTK is much less sensitive to the choices of bias than 2-layer NTK, especially when the input dimension is large.