Part of Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 33 (NeurIPS 2020)
jean barbier, Nicolas Macris, Cynthia Rush
We determine statistical and computational limits for estimation of a rank-one matrix (the spike) corrupted by an additive gaussian noise matrix, in a sparse limit, where the underlying hidden vector (that constructs the rank-one matrix) has a number of non-zero components that scales sub-linearly with the total dimension of the vector, and the signal-to-noise ratio tends to infinity at an appropriate speed. We prove explicit low-dimensional variational formulas for the asymptotic mutual information between the spike and the observed noisy matrix and analyze the approximate message passing algorithm in the sparse regime. For Bernoulli and Bernoulli-Rademacher distributed vectors, and when the sparsity and signal strength satisfy an appropriate scaling relation, we find all-or-nothing phase transitions for the asymptotic minimum and algorithmic mean-square-errors. These jump from their maximum possible value to zero, at well defined signal-to-noise thresholds whose asymptotic values we determine exactly. In the asymptotic regime the statistical-to-algorithmic gap diverges indicating that sparse recovery is hard for approximate message passing.