Deliberative Explanations: visualizing network insecurities

Part of Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 32 (NeurIPS 2019)

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Pei Wang, Nuno Nvasconcelos


A new approach to explainable AI, denoted {\it deliberative explanations,\/} is proposed. Deliberative explanations are a visualization technique that aims to go beyond the simple visualization of the image regions (or, more generally, input variables) responsible for a network prediction. Instead, they aim to expose the deliberations carried by the network to arrive at that prediction, by uncovering the insecurities of the network about the latter. The explanation consists of a list of insecurities, each composed of 1) an image region (more generally, a set of input variables), and 2) an ambiguity formed by the pair of classes responsible for the network uncertainty about the region. Since insecurity detection requires quantifying the difficulty of network predictions, deliberative explanations combine ideas from the literatures on visual explanations and assessment of classification difficulty. More specifically, the proposed implementation combines attributions with respect to both class predictions and a difficulty score. An evaluation protocol that leverages object recognition (CUB200) and scene classification (ADE20K) datasets that combine part and attribute annotations is also introduced to evaluate the accuracy of deliberative explanations. Finally, an experimental evaluation shows that the most accurate explanations are achieved by combining non self-referential difficulty scores and second-order attributions. The resulting insecurities are shown to correlate with regions of attributes that are shared by different classes. Since these regions are also ambiguous for humans, deliberative explanations are intuitive, suggesting that the deliberative process of modern networks correlates with human reasoning.