NeurIPS 2019
Sun Dec 8th through Sat the 14th, 2019 at Vancouver Convention Center
Paper ID:6666
Title:Towards Interpretable Reinforcement Learning Using Attention Augmented Agents

Reviewer 1

The paper is clear and well-written. Appendix and provided video are also quite helpful to obtain a better understanding of this work. The attention mechanism idea is not quite novel but its usage (considering the modification) in the RL domain is interesting and novel. In my view, Interpretability is the most important aspect of this work. Presentation and the depth of the analyses make this work a good submission and candidate for acceptance.

Reviewer 2

This paper proposes a soft, top-down attention mechanism for reinforcement learning. The main framework is similar to [1], with self-attention replaced by top-down attention generated by an LSTM. The network is adapted to RL scenario where the agent is involved in a sequential decision-making process and no explicit "query" exists. This paper provides a interesting approach to interpretable reinforcement learning. It is clearly written and well-motivated. The authors examined several examples of agent attention and showed interesting behavior of the RL agent. My only concern is that the contribution seems a bit incremental. The recurrent attention structure is not too far from previously proposed . The introduction of spatial basis is interesting but is not completely new either. That being said, I still think the idea and experiments are quite interesting and there are enough new thoughts to benefit future research. Another minor point is that in Table 1 in the appendix it can be seen that sometimes the model with attention performs significantly worse than baseline (e.g. battle zone, chopper command), but to my understanding the agent should always learn to perform at least as well by placing uniform soft attention. Maybe the authors can comment on this? Ref. [1] Ashish Vaswani, Noam Shazeer, Niki Parmar, Jakob Uszkoreit, Llion Jones, Aidan N Gomez, Łukasz Kaiser, and Illia Polosukhin. Attention is all you need. In Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems, pages 5998–6008, 2017.

Reviewer 3

The paper is well-written and clear; the architecture is described in detail through a diagram (Figure 1 on page 2), with the math in section 2 expanding on the key components of the attention mechanism. High-level details for the RL training setup, implemented baselines, and condensed results are provided in the body of the paper. Detailed learning curves for each of the compared approaches are presented in the appendix (which is appropriate, given that the task-specific learning performance is secondary to the analysis of the attention mechanism). The analysis section is thorough, and I specifically appreciated the section at the end comparing the learned attention mechanism to prior work on saliency maps. Model/Architecture Notes: While the proposed model is a straightforward extension of query-key-value attention to tasks in RL, there are two interesting architectural features: First, “queries” for their attention mechanism can be decomposed into features that act on content (which the paper refers to as the “what”), and features that act on spatial location (which the paper refers to as the “where”). Second, the attention mechanism is described as being “top-down” rather than “bottom-up”; the queries used are computed from the “query network” which is *not dependent on the input image*, and instead *conditioned on solely the prior state*, capturing macro-level information about the task, rather than local/spatial information about a given frame. Analysis Notes: I found the analysis to be insightful and well-conducted. I specifically found the sub-section 4.2 (“Reaction to novel states”) extremely convincing, showing how the learned agent behaves when injecting a known object (“fish”) at an unexpected time and location. Furthermore, I found sub-section 4.5 (“Trip wires”) interesting - seems to support the claim that attention does allow us to better interpret agent behavior. --- Key Questions/Concerns: The biggest question I have is in regards to the discussion of the role of “top-down” influence in the attention mechanism in sub-section 4.4. Specifically, it seems that there are two key features present in the “top-down” mechanism: 1) Focus on Macro/Task-Level Features: The mechanism is able to focus on high-level features of the task, instead of local, image/frame-specific features. This seems to be the feature that the paper is trying to highlight in its discussion of differences between “top-down” and “bottom-up” influence. 2) Time-Dependent Query Generation: The mechanism is able to generate different queries at different points in time. Unfortunately, it isn’t clear from the current experiments which of these features is responsible from the gains in performance observed over the two presented baselines: 1) learning a fixed query tensor, and 2) computing attention weights directly from the keys. I think that this distinction about top-down/bottom-up attention is a crucial point in this paper, and I’d like to believe that it is because of point (1) above. To make this clear in the experiments, however, I suggest implementing a bottom-up baseline that allows for time-dependent attention masks (ablate out (2) above). One way to do this is to learned a fixed attention mask for each time point t in the episode (for example, compute attention mask as a function of a position encoding that captures timestep). The second question that I have regards the failure modes of the attention-augmented agent. In the appendix, it seems there are several games on which the attention-augmented agent performs notably worse than the Feed-Forward and LSTM baselines (e.g. “chopper_command” and “jamesbond“). I wonder if the learned attention mechanism provides any indication as to why the agent is failing at these tasks - and if so, I think such a discussion would be very useful in this paper. If the learned mechanism doesn’t provide any immediately apparent explanation, some possible explanations as to why the baseline agents perform better would be appreciated (similar to the notes made about why bottom-up attention is better for ”Seaquest“ in sub-section 4.4). Nitpicky Things: I couldn’t get the videos on the supplemental site to play, unfortunately. Despite viewing the paper on a computer monitor, I found several of the visualized attention images hard to read... perhaps fewer images per row/bigger images would help? May also be nice to have more examples in the appendix (where you can increase size of figures significantly). I found this sentence in the second paragraph on page 4 hard to parse: “... This enables our system to be both state/context dependent and input dependent.” A possible rewording to make the (presumed) point a little more clear is: “... This enables our system to be both state/context dependent (by informing the queries from this top-down source) as well as input dependent (through the ”vision core“)”.