Part of Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 30 (NIPS 2017)
Batch Normalization is quite effective at accelerating and improving the training of deep models. However, its effectiveness diminishes when the training minibatches are small, or do not consist of independent samples. We hypothesize that this is due to the dependence of model layer inputs on all the examples in the minibatch, and different activations being produced between training and inference. We propose Batch Renormalization, a simple and effective extension to ensure that the training and inference models generate the same outputs that depend on individual examples rather than the entire minibatch. Models trained with Batch Renormalization perform substantially better than batchnorm when training with small or non-i.i.d. minibatches. At the same time, Batch Renormalization retains the benefits of batchnorm such as insensitivity to initialization and training efficiency.