When are Overcomplete Topic Models Identifiable? Uniqueness of Tensor Tucker Decompositions with Structured Sparsity

Part of Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 26 (NIPS 2013)

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Anima Anandkumar, Daniel J. Hsu, Majid Janzamin, Sham M. Kakade


Overcomplete latent representations have been very popular for unsupervised feature learning in recent years. In this paper, we specify which overcomplete models can be identified given observable moments of a certain order. We consider probabilistic admixture or topic models in the overcomplete regime, where the number of latent topics can greatly exceed the size of the observed word vocabulary. While general overcomplete topic models are not identifiable, we establish {\em generic} identifiability under a constraint, referred to as {\em topic persistence}. Our sufficient conditions for identifiability involve a novel set of higher order'' expansion conditions on the {\em topic-word matrix} or the {\em population structure} of the model. This set of higher-order expansion conditions allow for overcomplete models, and require the existence of a perfect matching from latent topics to higher order observed words. We establish that random structured topic models are identifiable w.h.p. in the overcomplete regime. Our identifiability results allow for general (non-degenerate) distributions for modeling the topic proportions, and thus, we can handle arbitrarily correlated topics in our framework. Our identifiability results imply uniqueness of a class of tensor decompositions with structured sparsity which is contained in the class of {\em Tucker} decompositions, but is more general than the {\em Candecomp/Parafac} (CP) decomposition."