Multi-Prediction Deep Boltzmann Machines

Part of Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 26 (NIPS 2013)

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Ian Goodfellow, Mehdi Mirza, Aaron Courville, Yoshua Bengio


We introduce the Multi-Prediction Deep Boltzmann Machine (MP-DBM). The MP-DBM can be seen as a single probabilistic model trained to maximize a variational approximation to the generalized pseudolikelihood, or as a family of recurrent nets that share parameters and approximately solve different inference problems. Prior methods of training DBMs either do not perform well on classification tasks or require an initial learning pass that trains the DBM greedily, one layer at a time. The MP-DBM does not require greedy layerwise pretraining, and outperforms the standard DBM at classification, classification with missing inputs, and mean field prediction tasks.