Nonnegative dictionary learning in the exponential noise model for adaptive music signal representation

Part of Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 24 (NIPS 2011)

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Onur Dikmen, Cédric Févotte


In this paper we describe a maximum likelihood likelihood approach for dictionary learning in the multiplicative exponential noise model. This model is prevalent in audio signal processing where it underlies a generative composite model of the power spectrogram. Maximum joint likelihood estimation of the dictionary and expansion coefficients leads to a nonnegative matrix factorization problem where the Itakura-Saito divergence is used. The optimality of this approach is in question because the number of parameters (which include the expansion coefficients) grows with the number of observations. In this paper we describe a variational procedure for optimization of the marginal likelihood, i.e., the likelihood of the dictionary where the activation coefficients have been integrated out (given a specific prior). We compare the output of both maximum joint likelihood estimation (i.e., standard Itakura-Saito NMF) and maximum marginal likelihood estimation (MMLE) on real and synthetical datasets. The MMLE approach is shown to embed automatic model order selection, akin to automatic relevance determination.