Towards Holistic Scene Understanding: Feedback Enabled Cascaded Classification Models

Part of Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 23 (NIPS 2010)

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Congcong Li, Adarsh Kowdle, Ashutosh Saxena, Tsuhan Chen


In many machine learning domains (such as scene understanding), several related sub-tasks (such as scene categorization, depth estimation, object detection) operate on the same raw data and provide correlated outputs. Each of these tasks is often notoriously hard, and state-of-the-art classifiers already exist for many sub-tasks. It is desirable to have an algorithm that can capture such correlation without requiring to make any changes to the inner workings of any classifier. We propose Feedback Enabled Cascaded Classification Models (FE-CCM), that maximizes the joint likelihood of the sub-tasks, while requiring only a ‘black-box’ interface to the original classifier for each sub-task. We use a two-layer cascade of classifiers, which are repeated instantiations of the original ones, with the output of the first layer fed into the second layer as input. Our training method involves a feedback step that allows later classifiers to provide earlier classifiers information about what error modes to focus on. We show that our method significantly improves performance in all the sub-tasks in two different domains: (i) scene understanding, where we consider depth estimation, scene categorization, event categorization, object detection, geometric labeling and saliency detection, and (ii) robotic grasping, where we consider grasp point detection and object classification.