Cha Zhang, Paul Viola
Cascade detectors have been shown to operate extremely rapidly, with high accuracy, and have important applications such as face detection. Driven by this success, cascade earning has been an area of active research in recent years. Nevertheless, there are still challenging technical problems during the training process of cascade detectors. In particular, determining the optimal target detection rate for each stage of the cascade remains an unsolved issue. In this paper, we propose the multiple instance pruning (MIP) algorithm for soft cascades. This algorithm computes a set of thresholds which aggressively terminate computation with no reduction in detection rate or increase in false positive rate on the training dataset. The algorithm is based on two key insights: i) examples that are destined to be rejected by the complete classifier can be safely pruned early; ii) face detection is a multiple instance learning problem. The MIP process is fully automatic and requires no assumptions of probability distributions, statistical independence, or ad hoc intermediate rejection targets. Experimental results on the MIT+CMU dataset demonstrate significant performance advantages.