Batch Multi-Fidelity Bayesian Optimization with Deep Auto-Regressive Networks

Part of Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 34 (NeurIPS 2021)

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Shibo Li, Robert Kirby, Shandian Zhe


Bayesian optimization (BO) is a powerful approach for optimizing black-box, expensive-to-evaluate functions. To enable a flexible trade-off between the cost and accuracy, many applications allow the function to be evaluated at different fidelities. In order to reduce the optimization cost while maximizing the benefit-cost ratio, in this paper we propose Batch Multi-fidelity Bayesian Optimization with Deep Auto-Regressive Networks (BMBO-DARN). We use a set of Bayesian neural networks to construct a fully auto-regressive model, which is expressive enough to capture strong yet complex relationships across all the fidelities, so as to improve the surrogate learning and optimization performance. Furthermore, to enhance the quality and diversity of queries, we develop a simple yet efficient batch querying method, without any combinatorial search over the fidelities. We propose a batch acquisition function based on Max-value Entropy Search (MES) principle, which penalizes highly correlated queries and encourages diversity. We use posterior samples and moment matching to fulfill efficient computation of the acquisition function, and conduct alternating optimization over every fidelity-input pair, which guarantees an improvement at each step. We demonstrate the advantage of our approach on four real-world hyperparameter optimization applications.