Subhadip Mukherjee, Marcello Carioni, Ozan Öktem, Carola-Bibiane Schönlieb
We propose a new approach for learning end-to-end reconstruction operators based on unpaired training data for ill-posed inverse problems. The proposed method combines the classical variational framework with iterative unrolling and essentially seeks to minimize a weighted combination of the expected distortion in the measurement space and the Wasserstein-1 distance between the distributions of the reconstruction and the ground-truth. More specifically, the regularizer in the variational setting is parametrized by a deep neural network and learned simultaneously with the unrolled reconstruction operator. The variational problem is then initialized with the output of the reconstruction network and solved iteratively till convergence. Notably, it takes significantly fewer iterations to converge as compared to variational methods, thanks to the excellent initialization obtained via the unrolled operator. The resulting approach combines the computational efficiency of end-to-end unrolled reconstruction with the well-posedness and noise-stability guarantees of the variational setting. Moreover, we demonstrate with the example of image reconstruction in X-ray computed tomography (CT) that our approach outperforms state-of-the-art unsupervised methods and that it outperforms or is at least on par with state-of-the-art supervised data-driven reconstruction approaches.