Visualizing the Emergence of Intermediate Visual Patterns in DNNs

Part of Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 34 pre-proceedings (NeurIPS 2021)

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Mingjie Li, Shaobo Wang, Quanshi Zhang


This paper proposes a method to visualize the discrimination power of intermediate-layer visual patterns encoded by a DNN. Specifically, we visualize (1) how the DNN gradually learns regional visual patterns in each intermediate layer during the training process, and (2) the effects of the DNN using non-discriminative patterns in low layers to construct disciminative patterns in middle/high layers through the forward propagation. Based on our visualization method, we can quantify knowledge points (\emph{i.e.} the number of discriminative visual patterns) learned by the DNN to evaluate the representation capacity of the DNN. Furthermore, this method also provides new insights into signal-processing behaviors of existing deep-learning techniques, such as adversarial attacks and knowledge distillation.