Deep learning is adaptive to intrinsic dimensionality of model smoothness in anisotropic Besov space

Part of Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 34 (NeurIPS 2021)

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Taiji Suzuki, Atsushi Nitanda


Deep learning has exhibited superior performance for various tasks, especially for high-dimensional datasets, such as images. To understand this property, we investigate the approximation and estimation ability of deep learning on {\it anisotropic Besov spaces}.The anisotropic Besov space is characterized by direction-dependent smoothness and includes several function classes that have been investigated thus far.We demonstrate that the approximation error and estimation error of deep learning only depend on the average value of the smoothness parameters in all directions. Consequently, the curse of dimensionality can be avoided if the smoothness of the target function is highly anisotropic.Unlike existing studies, our analysis does not require a low-dimensional structure of the input data.We also investigate the minimax optimality of deep learning and compare its performance with that of the kernel method (more generally, linear estimators).The results show that deep learning has better dependence on the input dimensionality if the target function possesses anisotropic smoothness, and it achieves an adaptive rate for functions with spatially inhomogeneous smoothness.