Jie Zhang, Dongdong Chen, Jing Liao, Weiming Zhang, Gang Hua, Nenghai Yu
Despite tremendous success in many application scenarios, deep learning faces serious intellectual property (IP) infringement threats. Considering the cost of designing and training a good model, infringements will significantly infringe the interests of the original model owner. Recently, many impressive works have emerged for deep model IP protection. However, they either are vulnerable to ambiguity attacks, or require changes in the target network structure by replacing its original normalization layers and hence cause significant performance drops. To this end, we propose a new passport-aware normalization formulation, which is generally applicable to most existing normalization layers and only needs to add another passport-aware branch for IP protection. This new branch is jointly trained with the target model but discarded in the inference stage. Therefore it causes no structure change in the target model. Only when the model IP is suspected to be stolen by someone, the private passport-aware branch is added back for ownership verification. Through extensive experiments, we verify its effectiveness in both image and 3D point recognition models. It is demonstrated to be robust not only to common attack techniques like fine-tuning and model compression, but also to ambiguity attacks. By further combining it with trigger-set based methods, both black-box and white-box verification can be achieved for enhanced security of deep learning models deployed in real systems.