MINGZHI DONG, Xiaochen Yang, Rui Zhu, Yujiang Wang, Jing-Hao Xue
Metric learning aims to learn a distance measure that can benefit distance-based methods such as the nearest neighbour (NN) classifier. While considerable efforts have been made to improve its empirical performance and analyze its generalization ability by focusing on the data structure and model complexity, an unresolved question is how choices of algorithmic parameters, such as the number of training iterations, affect metric learning as it is typically formulated as an optimization problem and nowadays more often as a non-convex problem. In this paper, we theoretically address this question and prove the agnostic Probably Approximately Correct (PAC) learnability for metric learning algorithms with non-convex objective functions optimized via gradient descent (GD); in particular, our theoretical guarantee takes the iteration number into account. We first show that the generalization PAC bound is a sufficient condition for agnostic PAC learnability and this bound can be obtained by ensuring the uniform convergence on a densely concentrated subset of the parameter space. We then show that, for classifiers optimized via GD, their generalizability can be guaranteed if the classifier and loss function are both Lipschitz smooth, and further improved by using fewer iterations. To illustrate and exploit the theoretical findings, we finally propose a novel metric learning method called Smooth Metric and representative Instance LEarning (SMILE), designed to satisfy the Lipschitz smoothness property and learned via GD with an early stopping mechanism for better discriminability and less computational cost of NN.