Théo Ryffel, David Pointcheval, Francis Bach, Edouard Dufour-Sans, Romain Gay
Machine learning on encrypted data has received a lot of attention thanks to recent breakthroughs in homomorphic encryption and secure multi-party computation. It allows outsourcing computation to untrusted servers without sacrificing privacy of sensitive data. We propose a practical framework to perform partially encrypted and privacy-preserving predictions which combines adversarial training and functional encryption. We first present a new functional encryption scheme to efficiently compute quadratic functions so that the data owner controls what can be computed but is not involved in the calculation: it provides a decryption key which allows one to learn a specific function evaluation of some encrypted data. We then show how to use it in machine learning to partially encrypt neural networks with quadratic activation functions at evaluation time and we provide a thorough analysis of the information leaks based on indistinguishability of data items of the same label. Last, since several encryption schemes cannot deal with the last thresholding operation used for classification, we propose a training method to prevent selected sensitive features from leaking which adversarially optimizes the network against an adversary trying to identify these features. This is of great interest for several existing works using partially encrypted machine learning as it comes with almost no cost on the model's accuracy and significantly improves data privacy.