Ehsan Adeli-Mosabbeb, Kim-Han Thung, Le An, Feng Shi, Dinggang Shen
A wide spectrum of discriminative methods is increasingly used in diverse applications for classification or regression tasks. However, many existing discriminative methods assume that the input data is nearly noise-free, which limits their applications to solve real-world problems. Particularly for disease diagnosis, the data acquired by the neuroimaging devices are always prone to different sources of noise. Robust discriminative models are somewhat scarce and only a few attempts have been made to make them robust against noise or outliers. These methods focus on detecting either the sample-outliers or feature-noises. Moreover, they usually use unsupervised de-noising procedures, or separately de-noise the training and the testing data. All these factors may induce biases in the learning process, and thus limit its performance. In this paper, we propose a classification method based on the least-squares formulation of linear discriminant analysis, which simultaneously detects the sample-outliers and feature-noises. The proposed method operates under a semi-supervised setting, in which both labeled training and unlabeled testing data are incorporated to form the intrinsic geometry of the sample space. Therefore, the violating samples or feature values are identified as sample-outliers or feature-noises, respectively. We test our algorithm on one synthetic and two brain neurodegenerative databases (particularly for Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease). The results demonstrate that our method outperforms all baseline and state-of-the-art methods, in terms of both accuracy and the area under the ROC curve.