Kyle R. Ulrich, David E. Carlson, Wenzhao Lian, Jana S. Borg, Kafui Dzirasa, Lawrence Carin
The local field potential (LFP) is a source of information about the broad patterns of brain activity, and the frequencies present in these time-series measurements are often highly correlated between regions. It is believed that these regions may jointly constitute a ``brain state,'' relating to cognition and behavior. An infinite hidden Markov model (iHMM) is proposed to model the evolution of brain states, based on electrophysiological LFP data measured at multiple brain regions. A brain state influences the spectral content of each region in the measured LFP. A new state-dependent tensor factorization is employed across brain regions, and the spectral properties of the LFPs are characterized in terms of Gaussian processes (GPs). The LFPs are modeled as a mixture of GPs, with state- and region-dependent mixture weights, and with the spectral content of the data encoded in GP spectral mixture covariance kernels. The model is able to estimate the number of brain states and the number of mixture components in the mixture of GPs. A new variational Bayesian split-merge algorithm is employed for inference. The model infers state changes as a function of external covariates in two novel electrophysiological datasets, using LFP data recorded simultaneously from multiple brain regions in mice; the results are validated and interpreted by subject-matter experts.