Zahi Karam, Douglas Sturim, William Campbell
Speaker comparison, the process of finding the speaker similarity between two speech signals, occupies a central role in a variety of applications---speaker verification, clustering, and identification. Speaker comparison can be placed in a geometric framework by casting the problem as a model comparison process. For a given speech signal, feature vectors are produced and used to adapt a Gaussian mixture model (GMM). Speaker comparison can then be viewed as the process of compensating and finding metrics on the space of adapted models. We propose a framework, inner product discriminant functions (IPDFs), which extends many common techniques for speaker comparison: support vector machines, joint factor analysis, and linear scoring. The framework uses inner products between the parameter vectors of GMM models motivated by several statistical methods. Compensation of nuisances is performed via linear transforms on GMM parameter vectors. Using the IPDF framework, we show that many current techniques are simple variations of each other. We demonstrate, on a 2006 NIST speaker recognition evaluation task, new scoring methods using IPDFs which produce excellent error rates and require significantly less computation than current techniques.