G.C. Littlewort, M.S. Bartlett, I.R. Fasel, J. Chenu, T. Kanda, H. Ishiguro, J.R. Movellan
Computer animated agents and robots bring a social dimension to hu- man computer interaction and force us to think in new ways about how computers could be used in daily life. Face to face communication is a real-time process operating at a time scale of less than a second. In this paper we present progress on a perceptual primitive to automatically detect frontal faces in the video stream and code them with respect to 7 dimensions in real time: neutral, anger, disgust, fear, joy, sadness, sur- prise. The face ﬁnder employs a cascade of feature detectors trained with boosting techniques [13, 2]. The expression recognizer employs a novel combination of Adaboost and SVM’s. The generalization performance to new subjects for a 7-way forced choice was 93.3% and 97% correct on two publicly available datasets. The outputs of the classiﬁer change smoothly as a function of time, providing a potentially valuable repre- sentation to code facial expression dynamics in a fully automatic and unobtrusive manner. The system was deployed and evaluated for mea- suring spontaneous facial expressions in the ﬁeld in an application for automatic assessment of human-robot interaction.