Part of Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 12 (NIPS 1999)
Bayesian predictions are stochastic just like predictions of any other inference scheme that generalize from a finite sample. While a sim(cid:173) ple variational argument shows that Bayes averaging is generaliza(cid:173) tion optimal given that the prior matches the teacher parameter distribution the situation is less clear if the teacher distribution is unknown. I define a class of averaging procedures, the temperated likelihoods, including both Bayes averaging with a uniform prior and maximum likelihood estimation as special cases. I show that Bayes is generalization optimal in this family for any teacher dis(cid:173) tribution for two learning problems that are analytically tractable: learning the mean of a Gaussian and asymptotics of smooth learn(cid:173) ers.