Adaptive Learning of Smoothing Functions: Application to Electricity Load Forecasting[PDF] [BibTeX]
This paper proposes an efficient online learning algorithm to track the smoothing functions of Additive Models. The key idea is to combine the linear representation of Additive Models with a Recursive Least Squares (RLS) filter. In order to quickly track changes in the model and put more weight on recent data, the RLS filter uses a forgetting factor which exponentially weights down observations by the order of their arrival. The tracking behaviour is further enhanced by using an adaptive forgetting factor which is updated based on the gradient of the a priori errors. Using results from Lyapunov stability theory, upper bounds for the learning rate are analyzed. The proposed algorithm is applied to 5 years of electricity load data provided by the French utility company Electricite de France (EDF). Compared to state-of-the-art methods, it achieves a superior performance in terms of model tracking and prediction accuracy.