Evaluation of Rarity of Fingerprints in Forensics[PDF] [BibTeX] [Supplemental]
A method for computing the rarity of latent fingerprints represented by minutiae is given. It allows determining the probability of finding a match for an evidence print in a database of n known prints. The probability of random correspondence between evidence and database is determined in three procedural steps. In the registration step the latent print is aligned by finding its core point; which is done using a procedure based on a machine learning approach based on Gaussian processes. In the evidence probability evaluation step a generative model based on Bayesian networks is used to determine the probability of the evidence; it takes into account both the dependency of each minutia on nearby minutiae and the confidence of their presence in the evidence. In the specific probability of random correspondence step the evidence probability is used to determine the probability of match among n for a given tolerance; the last evaluation is similar to the birthday correspondence probability for a specific birthday. The generative model is validated using a goodness-of-fit test evaluated with a standard database of fingerprints. The probability of random correspondence for several latent fingerprints are evaluated for varying numbers of minutiae.